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What are our hair? Why there is dandruff ? And how long can reach our hair ? In our encyclopedia You'll learn about everything that is happening with our hair , and look at some definitions and concepts you need to know everyone.
The structure of hair
Each hair by 80% is composed of keratin ( protein) 10% -15 % of water , the remaining 5 % -10 % are pigments , minerals, lipids ( fats) . Hair surface forms a so-called upper cuticle or scaly layer . Within the upper layer located cortex ( cortex ) , which is about 80% of the hair. Chemical transformations (dyeing , bleaching , perming ) occur in this part of the hair.
Hair color determined by the amount of the colorant ( pigment) in the hair follicle. Pigments formed of pigment cells ( melanocytes ) , by the thinnest channels they penetrate the keratin or horn cells , forming a hair color . In general , the smaller the pigment contained in the hair , the hair color is lighter .
Grey hair is actually not gray. It is a mixture of white and still have not lost the pigmentation of hair , which appears gray . White hair color occurs when pigment cells stop melanin production . Beginning of this process depends on the individual and genetic characteristics .
Norm is the loss of 30 to 100 hairs a day . Losing more hair can have different causes . In 95 % of cases of hair loss hereditary, wherein both males and females . Excess production of male hormones (androgens ) leads to poor blood supply to the hair follicles that hold the hair on the head.
Hair follicle - this is the root of the hair , it is located below the skin of the head at a slant . It is a place of education of the hair shaft . At the top of the follicles are sebaceous glands responsible for the production of sebum .
The amount of hair
The amount of hair depends on the hair color. Do blondes it is about 150,000 hairs , brunettes have - about 110,000 , have brown hair - 100 000 , while the red - 80,000 hairs.
Hair thickness laid genetically. By European standards, is considered thin hair diameter from 0.04 to 0.06 mm. Are considered normal hair diameter 0.06 - 0.08 mm thick and - from 0.08 to 0.1 mm. Hair Asians compared to Europeans thicker hair : the average thickness of the hair in Asia is from 0.08 to 0.12 mm. Besides hair Europeans have a cross-section rather oval shape while Asian hair - more round , and therefore more flexible.
Life cycle of hair
Hair reside in different phases of development. Most ( about 80 - 90 % ) is in the growth phase ( anagen) . During anagen formed a new root , and the hair begins to grow . This phase lasts from two to seven years. Then comes a short transitional phase ( catagen ) of two to three weeks , during which the follicle is being phased out in the formation of new cells . Due to this , the follicle and the hair falls tapers . Approximately 1 % of hair is in the transition phase. In a subsequent resting phase ( telogen ) hair follicle regenerates, begins the formation of new cells and the appearance of new hair . This phase lasts from two to three months and covers from 10 to 20 % of the hair .
Keratin is a very flexible protein , the main component of our hair and nails.
Scalp has the same structure as the rest of the skin. And have the same sensitivity, despite the fact that is under the scalp. The scalp is exposed to the external environment , such as frost or heat , which can lead to sunburn , dryness, itching , or the appearance of dandruff. Or it may become too fat under the influence of certain factors that stimulate the activity of sebaceous glands.
Separate hair can withstand an average of 100 grams of weight . Accordingly, the total lift of hair as a whole will be at least 10 tons.
Separate hair remains on the head of six to eight years , and then he falls . With strong hair loss hair life expectancy is reduced to 3-4 years.
The pigment is located inside the keratinous hair fibers . Depending on the amount of a colorant depends be darker or lighter hair color . With age, the formation of melanin gradually reduced, which leads to the appearance of gray or silver hair . There are two different types of melanin : large black-brown pigment eumelanin and relatively small red-yellow pheomelanin granules . The combination of the mentioned types of melanin forms a whole gamut of colors of hair.
Dandruff may be as dry as well as on the type of greasy skin , skin cells if the smallest die too early and too large a quantity . The reasons may be different : stress , poor diet , hormonal failure , dry indoor air , frequent blow-dry or too harsh shampoos . Get help with special shampoos containing octopirox or zinc pyrithione .
Scaly layer , called the cuticle forms the outer layer of the hair . It consists of flat flakes disposed principle fir cones, and is an indicator of the state of health of the hair. If scales are flush with each other, the internal structure of the hair is protected from external influences. Besides good light reflected from a smooth surface that provides shine. If on the contrary the upper layer due to various factors (stress, bleaching , perming , frequent use of thermal devices ) damaged ajar and lumpy , harmful substances are able to penetrate into the hair . As a consequence , hair becomes dull , brittle and matted . Return will help smooth hair intensive care special shampoos and conditioners .
Secant called exfoliating hair tips that appear in large numbers on long hair . The cause could be mechanical damage due to scratching or rubbing shoulders. However , frequent dyeing, bleaching , perming or use of thermal appliances ( hair dryers, irons , curling irons ) also can damage the hair ends . If split ends just appeared to help , at least visually , serum for split ends with the finest silicone oils . In extreme cases, will only haircut .
The secretion of the sebaceous glands
Scalp , as well as the entire skin comprises sebaceous gland. They produce fats that protect the scalp and hair from drying out . Depending on the genetic predisposition , stress or hormonal changes sebum sometimes violated. The result is either too dry or too oily skin, which is often accompanied by itching , redness and the appearance of dandruff.
Stimulate hair growth is extremely difficult . Per day on average, hair grows at 0.03 - 0.045 mm, and a month for 1 - 2 cm maximum possible length of hair varies from 40 to 80 cm
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